Saturday, July 25, 2015

Linda Emery Lee Cadwell. Retired Educator

Linda Emery Lee Cadwell was a teacher before her retirement. She is mother to Brandon and Shannon Lee as well as widow of Bruce Lee. Her's is a great love story in two very different chapters. 

Linda Emery Lee Cadwell. Photo: Madeline Crowley

There are a lot of people out there who have suffered and been able to go on.
It either shatters your heart into a million pieces and destroys you or it opens
your heart and keeps them right them in your heart. 
And it opens you to all the suffering of people all over the world. 

Linda Lee Cadwell grew up in the Central Area and was very much shaped by her experiences of diversity at Garfield High and Meany Jr. High. Her good friend, Sue Ann Kay, introduced her to Chinese culture, Gung Fu & Bruce Lee all of which had a significant, positive and lasting effect on her life. 

Were you born in the Central Area?

I was actually born in Everett, just a short ways away. My parents were from that area. When I was 5 years old, my father passed away from a sudden heart attack, very early, at 40. Then my mother, sister and I moved to Seattle. So from the age of 5 on, I lived in Seattle.

Neither my older sister nor I stayed in Seattle after high school, pretty much.  Still, I loved growing up in Seattle; it was a good place for us. I grew up in Montlake, then when I was in high school, or maybe junior high, we moved to Capitol Hill on 11th Street. That house is very near Seattle Prep, so I consider that where I grew up. 

11th Avenue East. Photo: Madeline Crowley
When you were a child, what did you want to do when you grew up?

I intended to go to medical school. I saw how hard my mother worked at a low-paying, stressful job so I envisioned something better.

What qualities do you think you took from your mother?

My mother was a hard worker at her job and at home. I remember her ironing our clothes in the middle of the night when she had to go to work early in the morning. I guess I took away a sense of life is not easy. We have to work hard to go forward. She once also told me that the most important word for her was “duty.” She instilled in me the fact that we have obligations in this life we either assume or we will be unhappy.

I know you may not be able to answer this, but what qualities do you think you may have from your father?

My mother once told me that I reminded her of my father because he was a non-judgmental person and so am I. I don’t like to judge other’s opinions or actions without knowing the whole situation. My first husband Bruce (Lee) used to say, “Believe nothing that you read and only half of what you see.”

Where did you go to Junior High?

Meany. Edmund Meany Junior High.

Meany Middle School. Photo: Madeline Crowley

How was your experience in junior high? It is such a fraught time.

I had a good time in junior high and high school. I had a lot of friends. I didn’t get into any of the problems that are so prevalent today like bullying. I just had a nice group of friends so I enjoyed my experience. I got along with almost everybody.

There were a lot of [social] changes after those years. I graduated in 1963. I know a lot of changed after that in coordination with the Civil Rights Movement. Changes really needed to happen but we didn’t know about that when we were in junior high and high school.

Sue (Ann Kaye) mentioned you were a cheerleader.

I was a cheerleader. I believe I was drawn to it because I liked physical activity and because being a cheerleader was a prestigious position. It was a lot of fun.

Garfield Cheerleaders. Collection:
A lot of people have remarked that when they went into the larger world they realized how unique their experience of race and class had been at Garfield High. Was that your experience?

Oh, yes. After graduating, I came to know about the outside world that I had no idea of when I was in high school because Garfield was very racially mixed. It was about 40% black and about 20% Asian and about 20% Caucasian. I had friends among every race, many of my girlfriends and guy friends were Asian; we’re still friends. I also had a number of black friends mainly from being a cheerleader and an orchestra member, and both groups were mixed.

After graduating, I learned that my Asian friends were redlined and could not purchase homes in certain areas. I had no idea that kind of thing went on because we all got along so well in high school. Then, the big bad world showed me a lot of different pictures.

Actually, we were very lucky to go to high school at that time, because whether it was on the surface or deeper, and I choose to think it was deeper friendships because I still have friends from all different races from high school. So it [those friendships] was real for us at the time but it wasn’t real for the whole world or outside the doors of the high school. 

Garfield High School. Photo: Madeline Crowley
Some people have described it as a kind of bubble because when they did encountered the outside world the shattering of a seeming idyll was a bit violent.

That was very well put because certainly with the Civil Rights Movement we came to understand there were all these tensions outside that weren’t happening inside the school as far as my experience… Maybe our black or Asian friends had different experiences but we certainly were friendly and we all did things together.

Besides redlining were there other things that shocked you about racial relations outside the Garfield doors?

There were things I didn’t know until well after high school, for instance, the poverty of some classmates and difficult family situations. I didn’t really realize the extent of class distinctions between kids that came from wealthy families.

Now, it sounds like with friendship there was no barrier but Carver Gayton told me that the Garfield Administration talked to his class about maintaining barriers around interracial dating especially black and white.

I suppose there were as far as dating, I don’t know if anybody ever told me you’re not supposed to date a black guy, that probably never came up because that kind of taboo was, kind of…  it was understood from parents and families. 

Garfield High School. Photo: Madeline Crowley
However, I certainly ended up marrying an Asian person, so… I didn’t really go by the rules. I had especially a great many Asian friends, girls and boys in school. In fact my first sort
of boyfriend, you know, back in those days we didn’t really pair off that much, everybody kind of did everything together, my first sort-of boyfriend was half-Japanese. When my mother found out that I liked him, that’s when I found that that was taboo. She did not
like that at all.

Did that present an issue between you and her?

Well, yes. It was an issue. I got the word; that was not expected in our family. And then what happened, a couple of years later, I marry a Chinese. That was not welcome in my family either because they didn’t know Bruce at that time.

You know, Bruce Lee has a history at Garfield High as well; he was friends with Mr. Wilson who was the Philosophy teacher. I don’t know how their friendship came about but anyway Mr. Wilson used to invite Bruce Lee to come to his classroom to give lectures on Chinese Philosophy. That’s how he became integrated with a lot of students at Garfield - he became a person who some of us congregated with.

Do you remember any of the particulars of the lecture?

I was not in that philosophy class.

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley
How do you think the lectures and interactions drew people to him?

Bruce was a very animated speaker and just a few years older than the students he was lecturing.  He also interspersed his talks with Gung Fu movements as they related to Chinese philosophy so he was very popular. Also a number of the class members became students of Gung Fu outside of class and then I started taking Gung Fu lessons.

What interested you about Gung Fu?

I liked the physical aspects of Gung Fu plus I had many Asian friends taking it and I had spent a lot of time in Chinatown.

What did you learn in Gung Fu that’s stayed with you?

Some of the self-defense moves have stayed with me although, knock-on-wood, I have not had to use them. Over time I began to see the relationship between the physical movements and the philosophical aspects that related to real life.

Anyway, from taking Gung Fu, one thing led to another. As far as my family was concerned, (sighs) I’m not very proud of this but I just didn’t tell my mother that I had this special friend Bruce Lee who was Chinese.  When we did get married, we were planning to elope and tell them later. (laughs) We didn’t realize that if you take out a marriage license, it’s published in the newspaper in the Vital Statistics part of the newspaper. I don’t know if they still do that, but whoever reads that? Only my old maiden auntie…

It was probably was next to the obituaries.

(laughs) Yes!

She calls up my mother and says ‘There’s a Linda Emery who’s going to marry a Bruce Lee, what do you know about that?’ Oh, everything hit the fan!  It was serious in my family. They called up a family council, my aunt and uncles and everyone came. Bruce was sitting there on the hot seat. They tried to talk us out of it and all of that and (laughs). Anyway, we went ahead with it, that was the best thing in my life (laughs). 

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley

There was one aunt and uncle; they were very religious, Christian. They told us that this was against God’s wishes and the Bible and all that. They literally disowned me for all the time that I was married to Bruce. In fact, after Bruce passed away, the next time I saw that uncle, he put his arms around me and said, ‘Welcome back to the family’ (laughs ruefully).

I didn’t have those kinds of thoughts, of course, so that was really… I didn’t think there was anything wrong with being with someone who wasn’t of my race. It never occurred to me. It never occurred to Bruce either.

Bruce Lee. Photo from

People asked me did you ever suffer discrimination… you know, I can understand my mother’s feeling because she was worried that her daughter would suffer from this decision, suffer discrimination and be looked down upon and all that. We never did suffer any discrimination, really. I always think you are treated by a person in the way you present yourself to that person.

Bruce was never a person to be meek (laughs) or bow down to anybody else, so he was always treated as an equal and we were too. The only time I was ever looked at sideways was when we lived in Hong Kong (laughs) and of course some Chinese people would look at me and wonder, hmm, why’d he marry her? (laughs)

How were you treated by neighbors and acquaintances in Hong Kong? 

I was well-treated by Bruce’s friends and family mainly because Bruce was so well-loved. I got a lot of stares and unflattering remarks from strangers.

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley
Were your University of Washington (UW) friends and acquaintances supportive? Did you feel pressure to elope only because of family?

The pressure we experienced was solely from my family members. My friends all loved Bruce and wanted the best for us.

I think when you look back at WWII, Japan was the aggressor, so all Asian people were treated that way by Americans because there were left over hostile feelings by Americans at Asians. By the time I married Bruce in 1964 there were people of that WWII generation who thought that was an evil thing to do. Those feelings die hard.

As much as we like to think we are free thinking people of our own creation we are shaped indelibly by the times we live in.

Look at the times we live in now - who we think is bad just because of where they’re from and what they believe in.

Well, interracial marriage has gone from taboo to virtually of no consequence.

I didn’t realize that in 1964, in fourteen states, it was against the law in to marry interracially. Of course, that is all gone now.

So you were an outlaw and you didn’t even know it.

Yeah, really! My cousin married a black fellow a little later. I always remind her I laid the path for this in the family. They’re still married 45 years later. They live in Boise. Boise is kind of a homogenous place. It is, but it’s getting better, much more acceptance of all kinds of people. My children grew up in a metropolitan center with a Chinese father so they were used to interacting with many types of people which they liked. I do too. That does get a little boring here, in that way, without much diversity.

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley

After it was discovered you were getting married, did your mother come to the wedding?

Yes, my mother, grandmother and Taky Kimura (who is from Seattle). That was it. Then we left and moved to Oakland immediately as that was the plan from before we got found out! My mother was very sad.

It didn’t really take long for her to get to know Bruce. He was a very charming fellow (laughs) and she came to love him dearly and my son and daughter as well. The other members of the family who thought it was against God’s law did not get to know him. While my aunt and uncle who lived here in Boise (he’s gone now) was so generous and outgoing. He was the total opposite of the other uncle, who was his brother. He was so welcoming and said, ‘Bruce is welcome in this family any time.’ He was the head of the YMCA so that was his philosophy.  Then when his daughter went to marry a black man, he told me he had to swallow hard and remember what his philosophy was and then welcome him to the family too.

It was so funny that those two brothers were from the same family and had such totally opposite opinions.

You can’t judge by one member of any family. Well, that uncle got to know your husband and his daughter’s husband and enjoy all the richness of those relationships. While he other brother died wizened and squeezed by his Christian faith. This is always so sad to me, if you believe that the example of Christ was to bring people in without judgment…

How, then, can you pretend to take his place and be the judge?

Exactly, but that’s a whole another conversation.

I feel very lucky that I was raised in Central Seattle with many different types of people, that I married a Chinese man and had that experience of meeting his family, of living in Hong Kong and being exposed to all of that. I would have had none of that if I hadn’t been raised in Seattle, Central Seattle.

Overlook, Louisa Boren Park. Capitol Hill, Seattle. Photo: Madeline Crowley

It’s one of many great love stories that came out from Garfield; it’s probably the most world famous love story that came out of Central Seattle.

It really was. I just feel so fortunate and then to have children who are part Chinese; it’s just such a blessing.

I guess that’s true, if you had been born at a different time you could have been bussed to Ingraham and you would never, ever have met Bruce Lee.

Looking back, I had an open attitude from my experiences at Meany and Garfield with different races and just different people, different lifestyles. There were people who came from very poor and very wealthy areas to Garfield, so there were so many experiences. Having that contact with all these different types of people and their families just makes one more open to experiences. I feel very fortunate that way.

Meany Middle School, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley
Would you say that is one of those things that formed you even today?

Oh, yes, I still have that same attitude. Absolutely.

That’s something you took from junior high all way on through. Some people I talk to say that time persists in who they are while others say, it was a few years out of my life.

Oh, no. I have very warm feelings about my youth, when I went to school and all the people I met. That’s because so many of us have always stayed in touch all these years, more than 50 years (laughs). I feel it had a definite impact on me growing in Seattle and being exposed to all those different things.

Also, my mother was widowed very young so she had to go to work and take care of my sister and I. We were latch-key-kids, we came home from school by ourselves. She did remarry when I was eight, but to a man (pauses) who was not a good man, really. He also did not participate in being a parent to us, not as a Dad and not financially at all either. 

Meany Middle School, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley

I did not know that until many years later that he had never contributed to the household at all. He worked but he didn’t feel he had to contribute to the upbringing of the children at all. It was all on my mother and then they got divorced right after I married Bruce. I asked my mother why did you stick with him for so long? He was not a nice man. She said, ‘Well I wanted to have a father image for you girls.’ Yeah? Well, how about a good father image? (laughs) So anyway, that just was not good.

Part of my upbringing was living in a divided household; (pause) they had arguments constantly. That kind of shaped me as a person as well. I wouldn’t bring up anything controversial because it would just start a big argument.  Therefore I’m kind of a person who does not speak up about things and doesn’t answer unless asked, just because I don’t want to stir up trouble. When I was a kid at the dinner table if somebody said pass the salt, my mother would be, ‘What’s wrong there’s not enough salt on it? Well, then. You cook it!’ There was just constant bickering in my family so that shaped how I was too.

It sounds like it gave you a real need and desire to leave.

Well, I guess it did. It seems like it when I look in hindsight.

… because you didn’t have a home, you had a house.

Yeah, not really. Yeah. I think that, also that I didn’t grow up with a father, really. I didn’t have a father, really. Supposedly, girls react differently when they don’t grow up with have a father. The circumstances were different too. 

11th Ave. E, Seattle Prep, Capitol Hill. Photo: Madeline Crowley

I had met had Bruce, we dated pretty much for a year, we did everything together, that was my first year at the University of Washington (UW). He was in his third year and we were spending all our time together. I was taking Gung Fu lessons from him, so we were doing things together.  By the way, the reason I was taking Gung Fu lessons at all was because my Chinese girl friend at Garfield was taking lessons from him and she said, Why don’t you come? That’s Sue Ann Kay, for the record.

Who, for the record, is lovely.

(laughs, nods in agreement) Bruce had decided that he was leaving Seattle after that year because he was going to join up with a partner in Oakland and open another Gung Fu school. It was a decision-making time, either I was coming with him and we were going to get married or I was not. You know, so part of the decision for me might have been I wanted to get out of the house but I was already in love with this man, too.

He must have been incredibly magnetic.

Yes, of course. He was… (pauses) in personality, he was much like the person you see on the screen in his movies, very energetic, very virile. 

Did you end up finishing your studies in Oakland?

I did not. We started a family. So, Brandon was born, we were pretty poor. (laughs) We really did not have a lot of resources. Bruce was teaching but at that time it didn’t bring in much.

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley

Other things were happening at that time too. Bruce was asked to come in to do a screen test in Los Angeles (LA) because somebody else had seen him do a Gung Fu demonstration and recommended him to a producer; long story short. So we were on the move. It wasn’t long before we then moved to LA and I had my daughter, and so I had two babies. We were in LA for several years and he did one TV series. After that he had a great deal of trouble finding more movie roles and continuing to go up in his career. By that time he decided that what he wanted to do was to be an actor… I’m going to end up giving you the whole history of Bruce Lee but you can read about that in a book

But was that what you wanted? Did you want to have a family or did you want to finish your education?

Oh, no. We both wanted to have a family.

So, you had what you wanted?

Oh, yeah! We both did. Then circumstances changed and we moved to Hong Kong. He made his films over there and he became very famous and everything.

How it was for you being in Hong Kong?

I loved it. I absolutely loved it. I wouldn’t want to live there forever and raise children there, it’s very difficult. It’s so crowded.

How was it to shop for food? So many vegetables are different.

Oh, gosh. By that time I was schooled in Chinese food. I loved it. Yeah, you bet.  Still, it was very hard to be there with small children and be married to a famous person. 

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley
Oh, because he was famous over there at that time?

At that time over there he was famous but not so much worldwide. There are so many people in Hong Kong in such a small place. You can’t walk down the street without being asked for autographs and pictures and everything so it turned into a more private life there - we would stay at home and eat.

Did you feel sequestered because you couldn’t go out without being pestered?

Well, that was true, but more true for him. We wouldn’t have stayed there forever. Actually his last movie was an American co-production. We would have moved back to Los Angeles. That’s why say I wouldn’t wanted to have lived there forever.

It was hard with the children; they cannot ever go outside on the street alone. They were very young, but there is not even the possibility that the children of a famous person… it’s just too crowded. There are too many cars on the street so you can’t send children outside.

For all those reasons, we both wanted to move back to the States, for the freedom of his work and for the freedom of a lifestyle. I did love it while I was there; I met a lot of really nice Chinese people too. I learned a good deal of the language that is pretty much gone now because I don’t have anybody to talk to (in Cantonese). I still love Chinese cooking which is very sparse here in Boise. We used to have a big, good Chinatown here but it was quite a long time ago, when the Chinese men would come to work in the mines…

They probably aged out…


Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley

Then after you came back to LA, did your career become managing…

Well, first of all, Bruce passed away in Hong Kong, and I came back with the children to Seattle.

I thought we would live in Seattle. Bruce is buried in Seattle at Lakeview Cemetery which is right up the street from my house so I was already very familiar with it. I thought I would live in Seattle.

I had been gone for ten years and I found out it rains there. (laughs) What I mean by that is when you’re a kid you just don’t notice it. I’d been living in southern climates and also, you just don’t go back to high school again. No. Ten years have passed. Your friends have families and they’re all doing different things. I had business in LA by that time too settling his estate and uggh, all that. In the end, it just made more sense to be in Los Angeles. But I never lost my ties with Seattle. I came back often, still do and just love it; it’s a beautiful city.

I’m very glad I decided to bury Bruce in Seattle, to this day, because he loved Seattle. I think at some time we may have decided to have a second home in Seattle or something because his very best friends were in Seattle. He loved to come back too. It’s not so far for me to go back and forth to Seattle too. I don’t really believe I have to go visit his grave to have him part of my life still, he’s always with me.

Anyway, I moved back to Los Angeles. By that time, both my kids were nine and five and in school and that’s when I went back to school. First, I went I went to UCLA but it was too far, traffic-wise. I switched to the University of California in Long Beach and got my degree in political science, and then I went and got a teaching degree.

You did!

I taught kindergarten. 

Meany Middle School, detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley


Yeah. So, I liked that.

Then, the funny thing is, I meet this man. I came to Boise in 1989 to visit my aunt, uncle and cousins who live here. One of my cousins used to be Bruce Cadwell’s secretary. She introduced us. So, he lives in Boise and I live in LA, you know, this is geographically undesirable. (laughs) Still, we had so many things in common: he’s from Seattle and his brothers’ friends were the older brothers of kids I went to school with. We just had so many things in common including our experience of growing up in Central Seattle so it was a good blend and it has been. He’s a good guy.

He must be tough too. It can be hard for anyone to marry someone who has had a great love. So, to marry someone who’s had an internationally famous great love must take a big heart.

Well, it certainly does. And that’s well put. Bruce Cadwell is a very secure man in his own right and very accomplished in his profession. He was a stockbroker and so he did not feel that attack on his ego.

Yes, a smaller man would not do that.

Oh, that’s very true. I know that very well. (laughs) So that’s been great.

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley
Now, it’s been 42 years since Bruce Lee passed away in 1973. There are occasions where I have to make an appearance, or do this or that. It’s much less so now because my daughter Shannon has taken over handling all things to do with Bruce Lee.  Still there are occasions where I have to go to a ceremony but it’s very nice because people are so devoted to Bruce Lee and what they have learned from him.

And Bruce Cadwell is just great with that. Sometimes he comes with me if I have to go somewhere. We had a fabulous time in Japan when they invited me over there to a screening of “Enter the Dragon” or something like that. Bruce Cadwell is great with that type of thing. He said, ‘I’ve sure had a lot of experiences I wouldn’t have had if I didn’t meet you.’  It’s vice versa as well, he takes me to a lot of places; I have played golf all around the world because of Bruce Cadwell (laughs) so it’s a good partnership.

Does he want to be mentioned by name in the interview?

Sure, that would be fine especially since he went to Garfield too.

It sounds like a great deal of the initial attraction was due to common Seattle roots.

In fact, shortly after meeting we discovered we had both attended Meany Junior High and Garfield. Bruce (Cadwell) is five years older than I am, so we didn’t know each other in school. It was definitely an icebreaker on first meeting because we had mutual experiences. Over the years, it has continued to be a connection for us since we know some of the same friends and we visit Seattle together. We both have a natural attraction to the water and like to spend some time there often.

Garfield High, Detail. Photo: Madeline Crowley

Do you know what it was that drew him to Gung Fu?

Bruce says he started Gung Fu because his buddies wanted to try it. His friends had heard of Bruce Lee and wanted to check him out. Bruce (Cadwell) is also a very active man and so martial arts would be right up his alley. I have heard Bruce referred to as “the best all-around athlete ever encountered.”

Should we mention his golf record? It’s impressive. Also, it’s inspiring to retire and have that achievement as your next chapter.

It would take a week to identify ALL the tournaments Bruce has ever won. However, a few significant achievements: Bruce was named as one of the top 10 senior amateur golfers in the country by Golf Digest; he won the PNGA Senior Amateur; he has won the club championship nine times in Boise and 12 times in California; he has shot his age or under close to 100 times so far.

I’m glad you found each other.

I’m glad too. He’s a good guy.

Having read a little bit about your life, you’ve had a significant amount, more than your fair share of heartache…

It’s very nice that I found a very loving man and supportive man.

And a man that has a big heart. There are a lot of men who are wonderful people but their ego is easily nicked, so I’m glad you found two great men.

Right! Two great men named Bruce; Bruces are good for me! (laughs) That is very true. 

Lakeview Cemetery, Capitol Hill, Seattle. Photo: Madeline Crowley
When my son died that was so (pauses) tragic. That was… (pause) He had so much promise and so much to look forward to… and Bruce (Cadwell) was so supportive. That’s the kind of thing that can tear marriages apart and does. He was so… (pause) just such a help-mate with everything that went on at that time which was terrible, terrible.

I am so sorry.

I know. That’s a hard one for me to get past. So unnecessary and he had so much to look forward to… Including that he was going to get married seventeen days later. If you ever were to talk to Shannon, I mean, it affected her life as well. She and her older brother they got along so great.

You know when something like this happens to you, you lose your husband, or you lose a child (pause) you think you’re alone in the world in your suffering. Then you find out that this has happened to other people and you never knew that about them.

Of course, all you have to do is read the newspaper or watch TV - all the people who’ve lost family members. It’s a club you don’t want to belong to. There are a lot of people out there who have suffered and been able to go on. It either shatters your heart into a million pieces and destroys you or it opens your heart and keeps them right them in your heart.  And it opens you to all the suffering of people all over the world.

Bruce & Brandon Lee's graves. Seattle. Photo: Madeline Crowley
The shattered heart that chooses compassion is a beautiful thing.

Yeah. My strength has always come from, what would they want for me? What would Brandon and Bruce want for me?

Or perhaps even your own father.

How my life would have been different.

When some people pass it does feel like they’re still there, somehow. That sounds ridiculous, I probably shouldn’t put it in here but I do think it’s true.

It’s true.

Thank you so much; it was such a pleasure meeting you. You’re so warm yet have such quiet strength. I really admire you. 

Linda came to the project via Mike Tagawa & Sue Ann Kay. 

©  Madeline Crowley People of the Central Area 2015   All material is covered by copyright. Express written permission must be given for any copyrighted material on this page. Email to request permission to copy or paste materials.

This project was supported in part by
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About Me

Seattle, WA, United States
I am not a professional photographer nor a trained journalist. At community meetings, it became clear that many of us don’t know each other. We haven’t heard each other’s stories and don't know each other’s circumstances. This is my attempt to give a few people the chance to tell their story, to talk about our community, to say their piece in peace. As such, comments have been disabled. The views and opinions expressed here are those of each narrator and do not necessarily reflect the position of views of the CentralAreaComm.blogspot blog site itself. The is not responsible for the accuracy of any information supplied by narrators of this project. All interviews have been edited and in places condensed.

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